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Single strand breaks are made on both sides of the damage, then new nucleotides are added using the other strand as template. There are two general types used depending on the size of the damage.
Both mechanisms follow a four step process:
- recognition of damage
- excision of the damaged nucleotides and their removal from the DNA
- filling of the gap with DNA polymerase by adding new nucleotides using the other strand as template
- sealing the final nick using DNA ligase